John Tobler's description of Carolina, pub. 1753

The province of Carolina, which is subject to the scepter of Great Britain, is a very pleasant and fertile region, situated in North America. It is divided into North and South Carolina. But this time, because of lack of space, I shall omit the former, North Carolina, and in, in this short description, shall examine only the latter.

Now the latter, or South Carolina, is in turn divided into four regions, namely Berkeley, Colleton, Craven and Granville counties. On the east it borders on the sea, on the south and southwest on the colony of Georgia, on the west on Movill [Mobile?] and Mississippi, but on the northeast on Virginia. The length of the province from east to west is about 300 English miles, but the width from north to south consists of seventy such miles. It is situated in the same latitude as the northern part, thirty to thirty-five degrees. The climate of the province is neither too warm nor too cold, therefore quite benevolent and agreeable, although the cool shade in summer and a warm fire in winter are occasionally not to be sneezed at. The province is also provided with various beautiful rivers, busy with traffic, of which the most prominent are: The Black River on the north which flows into the sea at Georgien Town or Georgien Stadt [Georgetown]; it contains a large number of fish and a large amount of fresh water, so much so, that it causes even the water in the open sea to lose it sharpness and saltiness, a phenomenon which happens especially at ebb tide, when the rivers are high. The Santee is a wide and long river, busy with traffic, which flows many hundred miles, and on which the German town of Saxe Gotha is situated. Finally, however, it flows into the sea about fifty miles north of Charles Town. The Ashley and the Cooper form at Charles Town a snug harbor. The Edisto, the Saltcatcher [Salkehatchie], the Port-Royal and various other rivers flow down from far up in the province and contribute much to trade, in that one can ship rice and other things to the sea via them at less expense than overland. In this connection, the Savannah River should also be mentioned, which is likewise very large and busy with traffic and which constitutes the boundary between Carolina and Georgia. Now, because all of these rivers contain many large fish, and since everyone is free to fish, these fish are of great advantage to the inhabitants in many ways. The main towns and best localities of the province are:

Charles Town or Carlstadt is the capital of the entire province, is situated on a neck of land between the Ashley and Cooper rivers and is a rather large and now also fortified trading city, which, with all of its suburbs, can roughly be compared in size to St. Gall. The number of inhabitants there is calculated at nine to ten thousand souls, which consist of white and black slaves (the latter alone are said to number 4,000), Englishmen, Scotsmen, Irishmen, also Frenchmen, Germans, Swiss and other nationalities, since residence there is open to everyone and since everyone can carry on his profession and other things as well as he is able, unhindered and without being bothered by anyone. For this reasons, all kinds of artisans live there; among others, there is a painter there from Chur in Graubunden, who can earn every year about one thousand pounds (a pound is twenty Batzen in your money). There are also other Germans there, who do this or that and who are either self-employed or servants and whose number amounts to about three hundred souls. The inhabitants are all genteel, some quite elegant, and have a high degree of intelligence, which, however, they do not have sufficient occasion to polish, due to a lack of institutions of higher education. They are very obliging and kind to strangers and poor people, and, although, as everywhere, the wicked outnumber the godly, there are nevertheless, among these people of various beliefs, many righteous souls, who practice their Christianity sincerely and behave humbly, justly and piously toward God and man. The commerce which is carried on there is quite considerable, is continually increasing and is very advantageous. It is hardly believable how quickly merchants with good business attain to great wealth; the general rule is that goods, which cost seven pounds in England, cost ten pounds in Charles Town, a fact about which no one complains, since the goods exported to England cost proportionally just as much. The advantageous commerce can easily be inferred, when one bears in mind that sometimes about two hundred large and small ships lie at anchor and that every year about six hundred large ships put in there. Otherwise, one is subject, here as elsewhere, to fortune and misfortune or, rather, to divine providence, which causes some to become rich and others poor. In the city, the number of beautiful buildings is also increasing, and most of the places, where the terrible fire of the years 1740 raged, have been covered with handsome houses and other buildings built much more beautifully than before. The main buildings are, in particular, six churches, namely one for the Episcopalians, or those devoted to the High Church, called St. Philip's, which is a beautiful building (they are in the process of building a second, which is to be even more beautiful and whose cornerstone is already laid). The second is also a fine church and belongs to the so-call Presbyterians, whose ritual agrees with that of the Swiss Church in almost every respect and who have a church government about like that at Geneva. The third belongs to the Scots, the fourth to the French, and the Anabaptists have two. The Quakers just assemble in a house. A seventh church, for the Germans is to be built soon. A spacious, splendid statehouse for assemblies of the government and other public affairs is also to be built. The other houses are all neat and fine, handsome and large and built of brick, but the plots for them, especially on the street toward the sea, are very expensive, since one of them, fifty feet wide and one hundred feet long, costs over five thousand Gulden. On the other hand, the houses are very lucrative, since some bring in up to one thousand Gulden annually in rent. In this town, the government of the whole province gathers, and it is the regular residence of the Governor as well. The city also has everything necessary for a citadel; it has various batteries, is surrounded by earthworks and bulwarks, and recently, a new ordinance concerning maintenance of the streets and fortifications was issued, from which they hope to derive many benefits. Three miles from town, there is a fortress, Fort Johnson, which commands the harbor completely and under whose cannons all incoming ships must halt. In the harbor itself, there is usually, along with many merchant ships, also a war ship. In peacetime, there is no need of a crew to man it, yet usually there is a company of regular soldiers in it, who have to stand guard and who also serve to intimidate the black slaves, so that they are less likely to rise up as they did a few years ago in New York and Jamaica and even in Carolina. But before they [in Carolina] could do great harm, they were fortunately dispersed. Around this town there are many summer houses and orange gardens. This fruit is quite common and is used for a drink or is exported. The gardens are green in summer and winter, and one seldom sees a snow lasting two days. The people in this town also sometimes grow rather old. A little while ago, an old woman, who had been among the first settlers in this province, died at the age of one hundred and five. On the other hand, there are there [Charleston] in the middle of summer severe and dangerous contagious fevers which occasionally bring many people to the grave. In particular, people succumb who live farther up in the province and who travel to Charles Town on business. The blame is placed on the many ships which land there, coming from almost all parts of the world, especially from Africa with blackamoor slaves, on whose arrival often yellow fever, smallpox and other diseases follow, just as if they had brought them along. But so that the spread of such diseases may be prevented as far as is possible, a house has been built on a small island in the harbor, in which infected persons must stay, who, until they are well, are not permitted to come into the city. No one else lives on this island, except those needed to take care of the patients. People who have just arrived in the province think, in the beginning, that the wells are rather good, but when one had lived farther up in the province for a time, one can no longer drink this water without danger, because it is slightly salty.

Near Charles Town and opposite it there is a peninsula name Wando, where my son-in-law, Mr. Zublin of St. Gall, now serves an English parish.

Beaufort is situated to the south of Charles Town and is a fine place, along with an excellent harbor called Port Royal into which the largest ships come. Trade there is more and more on the increase, since a good many rice planters live around there.

Ashley Ferry or Butler's Town is a small town, laid out in lots, which holds an annual fair and had a great deal of traffic, namely those approaching Charles Town from the south.

Stono is situated on the Edisto River, whose waters are crossed by bridges there.

Pon Pon or Hackenburg is situated on another arm of the aforementioned river. There is a bridge there too. It has rather good houses, and in the same areas there are quite rich rice planters, but because of the many swamps this region is considered unhealthy. Around there, several other little recently settled towns and villages can be observed, which have quite rich planters and inhabitants, some of whom own one hundred, two hundred or more black slaves. In these towns various churches can also be seen. But I do not care to describe these places, since I wish to avoid diffuseness and since they are occupied only by English people anyway.

On the border between Carolina and Georgia is situated Savannah, one of the best towns in Georgia. Trade there is now in a flourishing state. Mr. Zuberbueler from Teuffen is English and German minister there and receives an annual income of more than one thousand Gulden in your money. About ten miles, or three and one-third hours (for three English miles equal one hour), from there, there is an orphanage, which the Rev. Whitefield had build from contributions. This is the most attractive building in the whole province, and in it, children are educated in good skills and piety. Sixteen miles from the town there is a river of the same name. Farther up this river there is situated Purrysburg, where there is a small fort. Its inhabitants are in a rather good state; plant, along with rice, much silk; and are, most of them, Swiss. Their preacher is ordained according to the rites of the High Church and preaches in French and German.

Ebenezer is situated sixteen miles from there, on the Georgia side, and is a town inhabited for the most part by Salzburgers. Here there is no lack of inhabitants, since just two years ago another ship with people arrived. They are all Germans there, yet they are in a flourishing state. They have two ministers. One of them, who is my esteemed friend, is named Martin Bolzius. He spares no pains to make the people there happy both in this world and in the next. There are, to be sure, people who claim that he meddles too much in secular matters, but who can please everybody? I have heard many times from certain people, who are quite reliable, that he does not neglect any opportunity to edify his hearers in Christianity with preaching and teaching. I can confirm this from my own experience, since I have carried on for some years an edifying correspondence with this gentleman, in which I have encountered only that which is necessary for Christianity. He is a man who is very useful to this country, and, although he makes no distant journeys into it, he nevertheless, from time to time, sends out edifying books, which are very helpful to one's growth in Christianity. These consist particularly of the works of the beloved Francke and of various sermons, Hollaz's and others', which he sends without compensation, out of the goodness of his heart, and for which both he and those who send him such books from Germany are due much gratitude.

New Windsor is likewise located on the Savannah River and is a town with a good fort and royal garrison. Along with Charles Town, it is one of the best trading towns in the province, especially when Augusta, where there is another fort on the Georgia side, is reckoned in with it. These two towns, however, are separated by the river. (This is the place where I shall live, by the grace of God and as long as it is pleasing in his sight.) From here and Augusta, every year, over 2,000 horses loaded with goods go up to 1,000 miles west into the Indian country, some of whom return once, some twice a year with deer skins. These are then sent in boats, that carry up to 2,000 pounds, either to Savannah or, more commonly, to Charles Town, and the boats return from there bringing all sorts of necessary goods. The trip to and from Savannah lasts only three weeks and to Charles Town and back only five, more or less, depending on whether the river is high or low and also on the winds and the weather. The river is not navigable upstream from here, since there is a waterfall not far from here. The region where I live is almost an hour wide and, along and up the river, at least three hours long, but it is very good, so that I think there is no better place in Carolina. For everything planted grows quite well and yields much fruit, which, along with trade, makes this place famous. But is also the place where the most livestock is lost, for we lose many horses and pigs to the floods which the river causes in the winter time. For, while the river rises about one hundred miles up-country, it increases greatly, partly from melting snow flowing from the mountains and partly from the water from the frequent rains which collects in a very wide area. From this cause the low-lying land is flooded, and the livestock which seeks its food in the low-lying areas, because of the open ground, suffers distress, because the flood waters come before the livestock can be driven to high ground by the few people that are here. So if there were more people, this evil could be remedied in this way and in other ways, since there are only three places which have to be closed up by an enclosure or dam. But since the people here are increasing (we now muster more than sixty men), we can look, forward to an improved situation in the future. There are some mountains here of which it is believed that the wild ones created them in days of yore. In this region there live at present only five German families; the first is Lienhardt Bruderer from the forest in Appenzell-Ausser Rhoden; occasionally, Johannes Bruderer, who had never married in this county, comes to visit him. The second is Peter Marrol from Zweybrucken. The third is Elias Kohler of Nassau. The fourth is Leonhard Schweizer from the Zurich area, a native of Pfin, located an hours from Franuenfeld. The fifth is Chistian Fulbreit from Danzig. We have neither church nor minister. To be sure, a church service is held three times each Sunday according to the Swiss rites, however the sermons are only read aloud and the service is held in my house. But occasionally, my dear son-in-law, the Rev. Zublin, comes from Wando to us, along with others. He was with us all last March and preached, with much conviction, three times each Sunday, and during the week too, and did other things well befitting a true servant of Jesus Christ, in both the English and German languages. Because, as I have just said, he preaches in English, many English people come here on Sunday, so that my living room, spacious as a rule, can hardly contain them. This place is being more and more occupied by people from the north. And four families recently came here from Savannah. Others settle farther up in the region, where the best land has still not been surveyed. As long ago as two year ago, people began to occupy a place located five hours above here, on this [Savannah] and another river, which is not much smaller. The settlement is called Stevens Creek and is very attractive, excellent and good; the land is mountainous, but full of streams and springs. Quite a few people have already come her, but it is as nothing, since the land, far and wide, if very good. They have there a town court and now belong to us. Farther up-county, a distinguished gentleman from Ireland has had 125,000 acres of land surveyed, which measures at least eighteen miles on a side. He wants to be supreme lord of this land, get people to settle on it and have them pay him a tithe. But I do not believe it, for only foolish people will give a tithe, when they can have good land from the king, tax-free. When the time comes that the good land in South Carolina is settled, one will have to take what one can get. But before I leave the area of New Windsor, I must report on two more events that took place here. When the Rev. Zublin was here last, an Englishman came here who had become engaged, a few years previously, to a girl from Chur. They had lived together as man and wife, without benefit of matrimony, and had had two children. The man or father had not yet been baptized and, consequently, neither had the children. Now, since they had grown tired of such life, they came to Mr. Zublin, told him about their misery and their unchristian life and asked [that the man and the children] be baptized and [that they, the couple] be publicly married. Well, to comply with their request, the banns, as is the custom, were read three times, and after that, when the time came for the church service, first the man was baptized, then the parents were married and then the two children were also baptized. The other happening has to do the Indians and with their renewal of peace with us. A few years ago, the Governor from Charles Town was here with a retinue of two hundred men and renewed peace with the Indians. The Indians came up, singing and dancing, in a fine formation, with a white flag, and placed around the Governor presents of deer skins. Thereupon, after a conference, peace was concluded in the presence of a great number of people and the cannons were discharged resoundingly. The Governor presented the Indians with a return-gift of muskets, powder, shot and other things, and then everyone dispersed.

Augusta, of which I have already said something, is an attractive and gay town, with a large population and with churches and schools. A short time ago, the minister left there to go to one of the best benefices in the province, where he makes 1,200 pounds a year. They are now keen on getting another, but it will be hard for them to get one. For there are too few in this country to occupy the benefices, and a long time can pass before one comes from England. Otherwise, this is the merriest and best town in all of Georgia, and from time to time, more people come there from Pennsylvania and other northern localities, but usually from Virginia. But with regard to floods, this place is no better off than ours. Trade is also greater, and there are many more people there than here. Only recently, they also sent two men to the assembly in Savannah. But the election procedure is like that in Graubunden for the position of Bunds-Landamman. Those who want the position must spend lavishly. They receive no compensation but rather suffer a loss. They must travel to [the place where the assembly meets] at their own expense and must also pay for their own food and drink there, etc.

Saluda, located off to the side of us, is a very extensive place and has very many people in a wide area. Whoever comes from the north settles there, because it is on the way to our place and because there is very much good land to be found there.

Saxe Gotha is also a good, spacious and densely occupied place, which is inhabited for the most part by Germans, whose state is improving, at least as regards temporal matters. And if they cared as much for their immortal souls, they might be considered blessed. The place is situated on the busy Santee River. They have two German preachers, and if the latter practiced what they preach, it would be a fine thing. The people there own much livestock; the Negroes plant much wheat, have good mills and take the flour to Charles Town.

Orangeburg is closer to Charles Town, is also densely settled and is inhabited mostly by Germans. The place is located on an arm of the Edisto River, which, however, is not navigable, for, since the river is narrow, many trees are always falling into it. There is little danger of flooding, for the river rises not far from there; the land, however, is fairly good. Mr. Giezendanner from the Toggenburg, who was ordained by the High Church, is minister there. There lives there a man from the area of Bern, name Christian Myny, who owns about 2,000 head of livestock and, in addition, many horses, Negroes and other things.

Dorstetten [Dorchester] is located farther up toward Charles Town, only seven hours from there; it is also a pleasant and well settled town, with two English churches.

Strawberry is on the Cooper River, north of Charles Town or Carlstadt, and is also charming.

Several other places located in these regions could be mentioned but since I really do not know much about them, I will pass them by and just tell something about the province itself.

Now Carolina is one of the most attractive provinces in America and is the equal in size and excellence of the largest kingdom in Europe, especially since it is continually being better cultivated and is being settled by more and more people. It is true, of course, that Carolina consists entirely of forest (except for those places where it is already occupied and where there is sometimes a little clearing). This makes it difficult for beginners to live there and, in so doing, to make the forest a habitable place and to arrange everything so that people can live there comfortably. But the new arrivals have it much easier than we had it, for food was very expensive, but now it is cheap and sometimes quite cheap. In addition, there are Germans everywhere who are glad to advise and help new arrivals until they get on their feet. But, when one contemplates the settled places described above, one would have to look long and hard to find a better and more pleasant region. As far as the weather in the province is concerned, we have clear skies almost all the time. Occasionally clouds form, but it is sometimes extraordinary, especially in the summer, not to see the sun for one or two days. When rain falls, it rains rather hard, but occasionally, gentle rains also fall, as in Switzerland. If it is raining and the wind comes up, it does not last; on the other hand, the gentler the winds, the more frequent the rains. We have many breezes which temper the heat a good deal for us. They increase very much, on warm summer days when the sun comes up; at noon they blow the strongest and in the evening at sunset they gradually die down again, so that one or two hours before sundown, it gets so hot that one sweats even in the shade. Otherwise, the winds are very unsteady, not only as regards the direction from which they blow but also because they often blow very strong for an hour or two and then die down. The west, north and southwest winds are the most constant, and when they are blowing we usually have good weather but, in the fall and winter, cold weather. The winds from the east, as well as those from the southeast and northeast are unsteady and usually bring rain, although the north wind also occasionally brings this. Snow is seen here only seldom, and when it snows, it does not last long. I have experienced only one that kept up for several days but none that was deeper than three or four inches. We have frost here in the autumn, winder and spring, various types can be distinguished; a weak one, a white one and a frozen one. The last named usually constitutes our winter, since sometimes the ground is frozen half an inch deep. But the sun soon shines on this [frozen ground] again, and the earth seldom stays frozen a whole day, except for those places which the sun does not shine on. There is very little fog, and I have never seen one that did not lift in less than two hours. We have more thunder storms than you do, in that they occur frequently in autumn, winter and spring, too, but they do not last long, and I do not think the claps of thunder are as violent as in Switzerland. Just as the climate is temperate in other respects, the weather is likewise temperate; but I think it is not as hot here as around Jerusalem, though Carolina and Jerusalem are in the same latitude. What the reason for this may be I cannot say.

The fertility [of the soil] may be deduced from the latitude, but I will not indulge in any high praise of it but will rather give a true description of whatever it is necessary to know. Whoever desires a more detailed report, I will answer his inquiry (if God wills and I am still alive) as well as I can. If any people want to come to the province itself, they will find out from their own observation that I have written nothing but the truth. They commonly plant rice here and use it themselves, for bread or beer, or carry on trade with it and exchange it for other goods. Wheat also does well. Further, handsome lemon trees, orange trees, fig trees, mulberry trees and other growths are found; also ungrafted vines, whose grapes are very tasty and prefect; I myself have planted some of these on my land. At present they are beginning to plant barley and to brew beer, which will of course, be cheaper than that which is shipped to us from foreign countries. We are likewise not lacking in the necessary cattle, various species of which can be met with here in abundance, for there are those who own over a thousand head just of horned cattle. They let horses, cows, oxen, etc., look for their food themselves, and they find it in abundance. There is likewise no lack of all kinds of fowl. There is also here a type of crop, called [sweet] potatoes, which is the nicest, best and most useful in this province. Everybody likes them because they are quite sweet and tasty; they increase greatly on moderately high land. They grow in the earth like potatoes but are not like them. They become large or small, depending on the year, soil and seed. This root can be dug up from the earth and used without salt and fat; they can be boiled on a fire or roasted in an oven or eaten cold, whatever one wishes. There are other fruits of the soil which I shall intentionally omit. Turnips and grape vines are planted here in August, and they grow in the earth all winter. Moreover, I know that some say that two crops can be planted in one year, but others deny it. In answering this claim, one must make distinctions. Where rice is planted, it needs an entire summer [to grow]; and because the greater part of this land is under water in winter, then if one does not have a dry spring, one cannot plant in most places, until April or May. And then the rice usually does not ripen until September. But, after that, nothing else can then be planted that autumn. But good fodder for the livestock can still be gathered thenceforth. The animals therefore can be fed, when they come home, and can therefore be kept at home, so that the milk-giving animals can be milked. Wherever corn is planted, one can do that also only once. There is, to be sure, a species of maize, which is almost like yours and which ripens twice a year. But its flour is yellow, and it is neither as tasty nor as useful as the other kind, and, therefore it is not highly thought of. But whoever plants wheat, barley, rye, oats or other such crops, can plant them twice a year on the same land. Some plant these crops in the fall or in winter, other in the beginning of March (for one can sow and plant all winter); these usually ripen by the end of May, and when they have been gathered in, one can plant the same crop once again, taking one's time about it, and this will also ripen. But, if one is satisfied with one harvest, there is such a large amount of hay, that one does not know where to put it. I have seen an apple tree bear ripe apples twice, which is said to have happened only once before this; blossoms of ripe apples are seen rather frequently. I attributed the former [the apple tree bearing twice] to the warm autumn, since, around St. Martin's Day [November 11], when the last apples were on the trees, we still had summery days. Peaches, apples and ungrafted bunches of grapes ripen in July, some in the beginning [of July], some after that. The soil near the sea, apart from the rice land which yields abundant crops, is not as fertile as the soil up-country. No matter how fertile the soil may be, it is nevertheless not particularly healthy, which applies especially to the low-lying land and to the areas where it is wet; for there is very bad water toward the sea, as well as humid air, which is found on the moist, swampy land. But wherever one has an opportunity, as in the up-country, to build houses at high places, things go better.

Food and clothing are rather cheap, although everything which is imported is expensive, partly because of the long shipping distance, partly because of the profit taken on the goods. But whatever grows or is manufactured in the province itself can be bought at a reasonable price. The province is also quite suitable for trade, because, on one side, it borders on the sea and because, as well, there are in the province itself many large and busy rivers. On these rivers the abundant crops, planted and grown on the good soil, can be conveyed to market, and, in addition, large amounts of rice, indigo, deer skins and many other things are annually shipped to Europe and the West Indies. On the other hand, salt is then brought from Providence and iron goods from the north and from England. The silver veins could also contribute much to trade, if they were considerable. Traces of them, to be sure, have been found here and there, but the government has not yet found it easy to work them.

The province would also be quite suitable for factories, especially for the linen industry, because one would have an excellent opportunity to send such linen to the West Indies. But this would not really be necessary, because an almost unbelievable large amount of linen is imported into this province annually, anyway, to clothe not only the inhabitants of this province (who are seen almost everywhere in linen clothes in the summer) but also the Indians, who wear shirts as much as possible.

Moreover, flax, cotton, hemp or silk would not have to be brought from other lands, which only takes money out of the province; but the land itself would produce all of these things, if there were only enough people to accomplish these and other things. The people of the province are, to be sure, going in more and more for manufacturing. Here and there, they are making cloth for themselves and are making other things for the household, but most such articles must be brought here from foreign lands. So the greatest shortage is in industrious and intelligent people. The more people, the better we could help each other; some could plant crops, others could learn and carry on trades, others could run factories and others could do other things. There is no lack of employment to complain about; whoever can work and wants to work can find things to do and can earn an honest living by this means. But there are many people who avoid work and prefer to wander around in the woods and support themselves by hunting; however, some of them earn a great deal doing this. Many spend all winter hunting in the woods in order to catch in their traps beavers which they later sell to the hatters. They also shoot bears and deer, only for the skin and fat, although meat from the fat young bears is also used occasionally. They shoot wolves, not because their skin or meat is of any use, but because they frequently do great harm to calves, old cattle, pigs, sheep, etc. The wolves here are, to be sure, not as large and strong as those in Europe, but they exceed in strength the best dog. I myself experienced this, when my sons brought three wolves into my fort and set the dogs on them. Wild turkeys, whose meat is very good are more useful. There are frequently up to fifty of these animals together like a herd of sheep, and very many of them are shot. Now because there was a superabun- dance of acorns last year, these animals have become quit large and fat eating them, so much so that you can hardly kill them with coarse shot. Last week, one was shot by an Indian with a ball and was brought to me, which weighted twenty-two pounds; there are larger ones also. They can also be caught by a man riding a good horse. The larger and fatter they are, the sooner they can be tired out. I would not have believed this, if my sons had done it with my own horse.

Whoever wants to come to America should not go to Pennsylvania. This place is good, to be sure, but it is a cold, wintry land, so that rivers a half-hour [one and one-half miles] wide freeze so hard almost every winter, that people can ride and travel on them just as on land, but their summer, on the other hand, is very warm. Moreover, this province is as densely settled as Germany, and the land is expensive to buy. For the rest, one need not shy away from living among the English; they are, most of them, industrious people and good neighbors. They bring letters, newspapers and other things and deliver yours, often without charge. If they do charge, however, it is rather high. In their social life, they make very little fuss. When common people come together, they shake hands and ask about each other's health, occasionally also about the health of their respective families, only with the phrase: How are you? The other answers briefly, thanks the first one for asking, makes the same inquiry of him, and when the first one answers, the matter is settled. If the same two people come to a person of a higher class, they say: Your servant, or humble servant, and the other says the same thing. If you come to a house at mealtime, they ask you, in a friendly way, to dinner; if you decline, they are satisfied, for the most part, and seldom ask you a second time. They let the guest sit there and meanwhile continue their meal. They are frank. If they come into a house hungry, they say so. And they want you to do likewise at their places, for they would give you what they have in the house and would not think of asking for payment. If you wanted to pay, they would consider this an insult; the inns are an exception to this. They are very cleanly and wear clean clothes as much as possible. Their women are also friendly enough, neat and clean but lust very much for forbidden fruit. The most distressing thing is that there are many who do not have true wives but rather only concubines and housekeepers, who are sometimes not Christians. But the matter is all the more aggravating and disgraceful, since there are judges, who have not their own but another man's wife. In the beginning, I thought that if I were in a position of command, I would put a check to this evil; but now that I am, I do not know what to do about this miserable problem.

In South Carolina and thereabouts, there is still much good land left but few settlers. Whoever wants to come here would do well not to delay until the good land is surveyed, for then he will either have to make do with poor land or buy good land at an expensive price. When people come here, who have been able to pay their passage across the sea, they are considered free, since they own no one anything. To them the government gives fifty acres of land for every member of their family (an acre has thirty-five fathoms on a side, which make 1,225 square fathoms). This land is surveyed for them for free and a warrant for it is also issued. After that, they give them a sum of money in cash, with which to buy rice for a year. They are free from taxes for ten years. After that, however, they must pay the king annually twenty Batzen in your money for one hundred acres of land. In addition, there are also provincial expenses for repairs to bridges and roads and also war taxes, which, however, are very low in peacetime. These taxes would get smaller and smaller, if the province were more densely populated, for there would be more tax-payers. At present, you pay for one hundred acres of land, as well as for a Negro, only ten and one-half Batzen in your money. In wartime it may increase as much as one-third. All this [tax money] is used for the benefit of the province and an annual account of it made in a printed record. Otherwise, people are free and everyone, so to speak, a little king, a fact which cannot be changed, etc.

Since the space has run out for the present, more, God willing, will follow next year for the pleasure of the gentle reader.

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with us all. Amen.

Johannes Tobler.